Media Investigation- Unit 12


Genre is a way of categorising media products, it can be recognised by its features of which associates with the genres style and content, introduced with theme which shows more depth within the genre. A hybrid genre may combine elements from two or more genres within the same product, I prefer cross over genres as I think it draws more excitement with the viewers. This interests me because my favourite genre is Psychological Thriller and genre shows recognition of the product.


A narrative is a storyline that can be either fiction or non-fiction, it invites the viewers to question what is happening and anticipating answers, asking what will happen next and how will it end? It is the structure of events, where the plot is the summary of the events but not in the order we would see. I think that developing a well structured and detailed narrative is important and adds so much depth and quality within the product because when we see a story rather than basic information, individuals brains are more active and they are more likely to be drawn to the storyline and be manipulated from the visuals- naturally allowing for room for creativity.


Representation is how gender, age, ethnicity and identity is presented and creates the ability to shape an audience’s knowledge and understanding of these areas. ‘The Male Gaze’ is where women are represented in a sexualised and is the perspective of a typical heterosexual man who is embodied in the audience characterized to sexualise women, now over the years the roles are equal there are now a women’s gaze where men are now represented in a similar way. If a strong, responsive and positive representation is successful within a product these can fight stereotypes that limits society as the way something is represented adversely affects the way others see them, as well as how they would view themselves.


Audience consume these products in order to escape from their everyday lives, some enjoy to read media texts whilst others like to watch media products. The audience pleasure comes from identifying the content represented and the characters of which are portrayed. All these audiences have different perceptions on what they are viewing and how they consume these products, when the audience view these media products they often create an emotional appeal. Identifying the correct target audience is important because by doing so you are providing a clear focus of whom your product will serve and why these consumers wants your product.


Technology has evolved drastically over the years, we have had the internet being released as well as a digital intake on film, introducing CGI and improved camera quality, costume design and make up with the usage of 3D design, benefiting with improved sound and visual effects. Although, there are negatives along with this for instance, there is extreme dependability on this new improved technology which is making the media industry more advanced yet more lazy, which unfortunately leaves individuals unemployed. I think that how the technology has evolved over the years has been benifical as it has allowed us to stream our products on services and from the ways they’re made.


Media products are regulated to ensure that they meet their own codes of practice and are enforced by the government guidelines in order to keep content non offensive, gathering information on the publics thoughts when it comes to what is important. Their job is to examine complaints by the public and act if the broadcasting code has been breached. I think regulations are very important when working with a product as you need to be sure you’re able to overcome market failure and limit or prevent certain negative things that may be introduced of which will affect the viewer.


These are the key points to a successful media product, however much you may work on within the storyline or the post production. The product will not be at all successful in streaming on peoples screens if you simply do not have the correct production, distribution or exhibition put into place. These three areas work as one key point within the industry, each just as important as the rest but will not support any of the product without each other. This has changed the way I view marketing to an extent of imagination because all wouldn’t be possible without having the correct company to market with and it wouldn’t be at all fundable.

Marketing and Promotion

Marketing is about manipulating the viewers and making them interested in your product, cross- platform strategies are used in order to create appeal to a full range of the potential audiences. Independent films rely on the publics opinions, for instance, reviews in newspapers, magazines, or online publications that specialise in their product. Film festivals and social media can also help to attract the correct audiences and increase the amount of cross platform coverage that the product may receive. If I had created a product and had failed to promote or market successfully the viewers may not be aware that its even being broadcasted or may not as interested in the finished piece as they would if I had done so correctly.


I have chosen to focus my research on Genre and Film as well as narrative, and how metaphorical monsters are created within genre and why. There are multiple ways that tools are used to implement metaphors to manipulate the audiences emotions and when I do my research I expect to find out different metaphors throughout time and how they were manipulated in the visuals to fit the viewers comfort with how they relate to it so that I can find out why they’re used and how.

My opinions on how metaphors are used are quite strong but I wish to expand my knowledge on this because I find it interesting on how we use such metaphors to satisfy what we cannot speak, these have the ability to create images and stories that can be used to convey everyday communications and thinking. Of course, metaphors are used within all genre but the most popular is horror, this is because not only is it used for entertainment but it gains new perspectives within the world. I think that metaphors are used to tell a story about something that has previously caught attention that you wish to communicate without creating complication when demanding a manageable solution.

I believe that people who seek metaphors within life use these to take an identity or concept and these are so powerful because if you correctly shoe a metaphor not only can it symbolise new insight in what you are trying to teach it also helps people to see their own misunderstanding and stimulates the subconscious. I wish to find out how metaphors are linked to our emotions and understanding, as well as how they portrayed and harnessed. I will be discussing past famous metaphors such as vampires, werewolf’s and other creatures that society has created to activate the imagination to convey their impressions and opinions upon a subject they may be sensitive or feel strongly towards.

How are monsters portrayed as metaphors in horror?

Horror is designed to generate strong emotions from the audience, an open door situations and environments, introducing a dramatised concept that invites the viewer to confront terror and suspense. Monsters have for centuries been manifestations of society’s fears and anxieties within film, but it may be useful to think about why pop culture is raising the dead, and what it says about our contemporary fears. Horror examines how cultural fears are shaped and how societies differences are constructed. These monstrous metaphors are represented as anxieties of aberration and innovation, each particular type of monster is based of which evil and moral transgression is served ( One of the most famous monsters in Western history is that of Frankenstein’s monster, Frankenstein has inspired other movies to portray a monster as a grotesque, in the context of the gothic nature, slavery and racism within Frankenstein were metaphorically used to identify the discourses of power, identity and nature.

These metaphors finds application not only in critical thinking but also in teaching contexts, exploring how social and cultural threats come to be embodied in the figure of a monster, literalizing our deepest fears. These monsters have become more humane than ever before in history, of course they still cater to the appetite for horror but they also encourage empathy. Mark Jancovich says that “Different groups will represent the monstrous in different ways and representations will develop historically”(,body%20that%20scares%20and%20appals ). A lot of successful horrors have addressed the humanity of the viewer through creating a shared humanity with the monster, and the metaphorical nature of horror monsters is psychologically necessary because humans sometimes find it difficult to grasp something psychically so they seek language that activates the imagination and centralizes how people see the world around them.

Rick Grimes, The Walking Dead
Rick Grimes, The Walking Dead

A popular outbreak in pop culture would be zombies in The Walking Dead, which is narrative that reveals how we fear an apocalyptic in society and possible breakdowns of it, as well as behaviour influenced by the face of human survival. There seems to be some clear advantages in using the living dead as a hook for political and policy ideas, reinforcing an apocalyptic perception about the future of modern society. Zombies have given producers a way to discuss demanding issues, recalling that zombies themselves are rarely at the centre of the narrative but where the issue lies.

Vampires are metaphorically created in order to express political and cultural anxieties, In the nineteenth century politicians, intellectuals and popular entertainers did this to harness their understanding of the rapidly changing society. Everyone in this era was somewhat familiar with vampires from their newspapers and novels, these creatures served to illustrate a range of issues and whatever was then threatened to society, was considered a vampire.

According to the folklore of Eastern Europe, people were marked out for vampirism that where born with disabilities or disfigurements and those whose anti-social behaviour put them outside the pale of their society. The same was true for the radical feminists, these individuals would be grouped as an edge of societies problem and were found depicted as vampires. (

Some terrors we may face within life may be too scary or difficult to see directly, and so they commonly are introduced into these genres in the more easily donned cloak of metaphor, this has been the secret agenda for horror since the beginning to translate these terrors into something easier. Ernest Dickerson has stated that ”When society is trying to deal with the unimaginable, it’s interesting how often it is horror films that help them cope with it,” Witnessing how individuals cope with something like that up on a screen may help them prepare somehow, becoming a cushion for terror shock. In the past there were spawned a cycle of films about alien attacks and monsters from outer space which may have signified the invasion and disruption of their home. There were also big fears of AIDS and sexuality that were cited as instigators of the cycle of slasher flicks in which they found themselves butchered by relentless, knife killers.

The Wound (2013), , tells a story of how a drawing of a monster came to life by a tension between care and oppression and followed the woman who drew him throughout her life to comfort her but falls demanding. The monster appears at her most vulnerable and the monsters growth is to portray her state of mind, seen as a source domain for depression”. If you were to metaphorize abstract and appearances it is more easily understood to humans, making monsters a metaphor for mental health. What these two things share in common is darkness, as individuals tend to associate darkness with danger the metaphor can be understood as a category to emotion.

Monsters in horror films are rarely just monsters. Psychoanalysts thrive on the opportunity to analyse a horror film. These monsters can be metaphors for anything from, LGBT, mental illness, sexual abuse, past, society, technology, and more.. The film makers are aware of these metaphors when creating the product and shape their films with what they wish to convey.


Annotated Catalogue

This site had helped me gain a more understanding of how states of mental health are expressed by metaphorising the issue and I had found using this site has been very useful and fascinating to look into as it has created a new insight for me of how dominant metaphors for monsters benefits societies place of fear.

Researching into this product has led me to believe that society seeks these metaphors as a way of comfort and to create a clearer understanding within the issues they struggle to address so they seek an easier and more visually pleasing way to portray their fears.

This website includes a fair amount of interesting information for what I was looking for, it discusses how these matchers are used to encourage the viewer to feel empathy and how it caters the appetite of horror genre itself.

This particular one I had found the most helpful within my research and it goes more in depth with different examples of monsters and explains further where these metaphors originally came from and how they impacted society. This site explains the manifestations of societies fears and how it is involved within pop culture.

Here it is highlighted that horror is one of the most versatile genres out there and gives examples of possible ways that we may virtually manipulate any news issue and it goes in depth of how they translate those terrors into a product representing cultural anxieties. This has helped me understand the approach more clearly making it easier to look into some examples and history within the metaphors.

This website tells us about award winning film makers and some of their media products that are using metaphors as a dramatic form of escapism and how horror is able to explore unspeakable subjects and given a better understanding of the visceral nature behind it.

This site focuses on how society is influenced by their fears, anxieties and how they deal with the unimaginable. This site also had given me some interesting examples of this in past media products and past metaphors, this has been helpful to grasp the serialism and meaning behind these metaphors and how the fears portray them.

Both of these sites reflects the metaphorical associations between verticality and affect and how lighting can have an affect with the events. It also outlines how cinematic manifestations of metaphors can elaborate concepts and keep them alive within culture.

This site explains that they don’t just use metaphors within the production of horror they are oftenly used when actually researching into the product and this is to understand better opportunities to solve problem spaces and more importantly, how to solve them.

When reading through this article it has made me build a wider understanding of what horror and monsters have in common and how the genre are depictions of monsters and how they may possibly be grouped. It simply makes us ask ‘what is horror’ and the psychoanalysis of the resources that provide a satisfactory amount of metaphors that follows an attempt to show ab explanation of monstrosity in terms of how it may be compatible in terms of historical and current conditioning.

This site has provided useful examples of which I can link to the representation of horror and understand of how metaphors were used in that day and time and why they were used in that way. It highlights racial matters aswell as sexuality to feminists.

The following I had decided were not useful:

This link was not useful because it didn’t contain the information I needed to link to film, although there were some key points that has helped my understanding of the metaphors but it wasn’t related to horror films, as being my intention of this being that genre and type of media product I didn’t feel as it would be reliable for what I am looking for and may be quite biased.

I had chosen not to use think link because l had not trusted the information given as I felt as it was confronted quite opinionated rather than factual which I want to avoid when gathering research and it wasn’t related to my actual title at all it had linked itself to interviews etc.


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